Articles

Husband's behavior and early marriage as risk factors for hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in Karangasem, Bali, Indonesia

I Nengah Adnyana Surapathi , Dewa Nyoman Wirawan, Anak Agung Sagung Sawitri

I Nengah Adnyana Surapathi
Karangasem District General Hospital. Email: adnyanasurapathi@gmail.com

Dewa Nyoman Wirawan
Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University

Anak Agung Sagung Sawitri
Department of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Udayana University
Online First: July 07, 2021 | Cite this Article
Surapathi, I., Wirawan, D., Sawitri, A. 2021. Husband's behavior and early marriage as risk factors for hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in Karangasem, Bali, Indonesia. Public Health and Preventive Medicine Archive 9(1): 32-37. DOI:10.15562/phpma.v9i1.280


Background and purpose: Indonesia is categorized as a country with moderate level of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, where the majority of HBV transmissions occur from mother to child, horizontal transmission during childhood and adulthood, and transmission in health services. This study aims to determine factors associated with HBV infection among pregnant women.

Methods: A case control study was conducted among 80 pregnant women with sero-positive HBsAg as cases and 80 pregnant women with sero-negative HBsAg as controls. The sources of cases and controls were the registers of pregnant women at 12 public health centers (PHCs) and Karangasem District Hospital from June 2017 to December 2018. Cases were selected by systematic random sampling from 129 pregnant women with sero-positive HBsAg and controls were selected through the same method from 1,408 pregnant women with sero-negative HBsAg. They were then matched based on village or residence. Data collected were including history of marriage, pregnancy, childbirth and abortion, history of health services relevant to HBV infection, use of contraception, mobility, permanent tattoos and history of injecting drug use. Data collection was carried out from June to August 2019 through face-to-face interviews with pregnant women as respondents in their respective homes using a pre-tested questionnaire. Bivariate data analysis was conducted with chi square test and multivariate analysis with logistic regression.

Results: The case and control groups were similar in terms of age, number of pregnancy and parity. Risk factors which found to be significantly associated with HBV infection in pregnant women were age at first marriage <19 years with AOR=2.51 (95%CI: 1.13-5.60), history of husband’s mobility with AOR=3.07 (95%CI: 1.13-8.34), husband has a permanent tattoo with AOR=2.77 (95%CI: 1.04-7.44) and low level of maternal education with AOR=2.47 (95%CI: 1.06-5.73).

Conclusion: Young marital age, low education, husband's mobility and husband with permanent tattoos increase the likelihood of HBV infection among pregnant women. The coverage of HBV examination among pregnant women and early detection of HBV among husbands ought to be increased, especially among those with associated risk factors.

References

World Health Organization. Global Hepatitis Report 2017. World Health Organization. Geneva; 2017.

Ministry of Health of The Republic of Indonesia. Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2007 [The 2007 Indonesia Basic Health Research]. Department of Health of The Republic of Indonesia. Jakarta; 2008.

Ministry of Health of The Republic of Indonesia. Riset Kesehatan Dasar 2013 [The 2013 Indonesia Basic Health Research]. Ministry of Health of The Republic of Indonesia. Jakarta; 2013.

Muljono DH. Epidemiology of Hepatitis B and C in Republic of Indonesia. Euroasian J hepato-gastroenterology. 2017;7(1):55.

HSE National Immunisation Office. Immunisation Guidelines. HSE Ireland. 2015.

Ministry of Health of The Republic of Indonesia. Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 53 Tahun 2015 Tentang Penanggulangan Hepatitis Virus [Regulation of The Ministry of Health of The Republic of Indonesia No. 53 Year 2015 concerning Viral Hepatitis Control]. Jakarta; 2017.

Ministry of Health of The Republic of Indonesia. Situasi Penyakit Hepatitis B di Indonesia [Hepatitis B Situation in Indonesia]. Jakarta; 2017.

Karangasem District Health Office. Data Pelaksanaan Deteksi Dini Hepatitis B pada Ibu Hamil di Kabupaten Karangasem Tahun 2017 [Data on the Hepatitis B Early Detection among Pregnant Women in Karangasem District Year 2017]. 2017.

Rabiu KA, Akinola OI, Adewunmi AA, Omololu OM, Ojo TO. Risk factors for hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in Lagos, Nigeria. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2010;89(8):1024–8.

Anaedobe CG, Fowotade A, Omoruyi CE, Bakare RA. Prevalence, socio-demographic features and risk factors of Hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women in Southwestern Nigeria. Pan Afr Med J. 2015;20.

Ngaira JAM, Kimotho J, Mirigi I, Osman S. Prevalence, Awareness and Risk Factors Associated with Hepatitis B Infection among Pregnant Women Attending The Antenatal Clinic at Mbagathi District Hospital in Nairobi, Kenya. Pan Afr Med J. 2016;24.

Adegbesan OMA, Okunade KS, Gbadegesin A, et al. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B virus infection among pregnant women at the antenatal booking clinic of a tertiary hospital in Lagos Nigeria. Niger J Clin Pr. 2015;18(6):819–23.

Chernet A, Yesuf A, Alagaw A. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B virus surface antigen and factors associated among pregnant women in Dawuro zone, SNNPR, Southwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. BMC Res Notes. 2017;418(10):1–5.

Lohani P, Kumar A, Singh R, Sinha RK, Mukherjee MA. Study of Risk Factors of Hepatitis B Infection among Rural Adult Population of Patna, Bihar. Int J Community Med Public Heal. 2017;4(12):4654–60.

Zenebe Y, Mulu W, Yimer M, Abera B. Sero-prevalence and risk factors of hepatitis B virus and human immunodeficiency virus infection among pregnant women in Bahir Dar City, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross sectional study. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14(1):118.

Cetin S, Cetin M, Turhan E, Dolapcioglu K. Seroprevalence of Hepatitis B Surface Antigen and Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2018;12(10):904–9.

Rasekh H, Naimi HM, Mousavi SH. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C and HIV Viruses among People Who Use Drugs (PWUD) in Kabul Health Care Facilities. Hepat Mon. 2019;19(7).

Umare A, Seyoum B, Gobena T, Mariyam TH. Hepatitis B Virus Infections and Associated Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care Clinic at Deder Hospital, Eastern Ethiopia. PLoS One. 2016;11(11):e0166936.

Bani I, Mahfouz MS, Ageely HM. Prevalence and risk Women in Jazan Region. Prevalence. 2012;2(7).

Fissehatsion K, Ali I, Getachew A. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors of Sexually Transmitted Infections (HIV, HBV and Syphilis) among Pregnant Women Provided Health Care Services, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Am J Heal Res. 2017;5(5):154–61.

Afzali H, Heravi MM, Moravveji SA, Poorrahnama M. Prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen in pregnant women in Beheshti Hospital of Kashan, Isfahan. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2015;17(7).

Molla S, Munshea A, Nibret E. Seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen and anti HCV antibody and its associated risk factors among pregnant women attending maternity ward of Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. Virol J. 2015;12(1):204.

Ageely H, Mahfouz MS, Gaffar A, Elmakki E, Elhassan I, Yasin AO, et al. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Hepatitis B Virus in Jazan Region, Saudi Arabia: Cross-Sectional Health Facility Based Study. Health (Irvine Calif). 2015;7(04):459.

Seid M, Gelaw B, Assefa A. Sero-prevalence of HBV and HCV infections among pregnant women attending antenatal care clinic at Dessie Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. Adv Life Sci Heal. 2014;1(2):109–20.

Omalu ICJ, Jibrin A, Olayemi IK, Hassan SC, Mgbemena C, Mgbemena A, et al. Seroprevalence of Malaria and Hepatitis B (HBsAg) with Associated Risk Factors among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in General Hospital Minna, North-Central Nigeria. Annu Res Rev Biol. 2012;83–8.

Metaferia Y, Dessie W, Ali I, Amsalu A. Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors of Hepatitis B Virus among Pregnant Women in Southern Ethiopia: a Hospital-Based Cross-Sectional Study. Epidemiol Health. 2016;38.

Fadlyana E, Larasaty S. Pernikahan usia dini dan permasalahannya [Early age marriage and the problems]. Sari Pediatr. 2016;11(2):136–41.

Faizaturrahmi E, Ani LS, Sari KAK. Faktor Risiko Infeksi Virus Hepatitis B pada Ibu Hamil di Kabupaten Lombok Timur [Risk factors for hepatitis B virus infections among pregnant women in East Lombok District]. Public Health and Preventive Medicine Archive. 2018;6(2):108-113.

Bali Province Statistics Beureau. Provinsi Bali dalam Angka [Bali Province in Number]. Denpasar; 2018.

Karangasem District Statistics Beureau. The 2016 Karangasem District Statistics. Amlapura; 2016.

Ministry of Health of The Republic of Indonesia. Survei Demografi dan Kesehatan Indonesia 2012 [The 2012 Indonesia Demography and Health Survey]. Jakarta; 2012.

Son DT, Oh J, Heo J, Huy N Van, Minh H Van, Choi S, et al. Early Sexual Initiation and Multiple Sexual Partners among Vietnamese Women: Analysis from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2011. Glob Health Action. 2016;9(1):29575.

Aluor EPT, Oluma HOA, Ega RAI, Owolcho N. Sero-epidemiological survey and risk factors for Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) infection among pregnant women in Logo LGA, Benue State, Nigeria. African J Clin Exp Microbiol. 2016;17(1):66–75.

Abdulai MA, Baiden F, Adjei G, Owusu-Agyei S. Low Level of Hepatitis B Knowledge and Awareness among Pregnant Women in the Kintampo North Municipality: Implications for Effective Disease Control. Ghana Med J. 2016;50(3):157–62.

Brouard C, Gautier A, Saboni L, Jestin C, Semaille C, Beltzer N. Hepatitis B Knowledge, Perceptions and Practices in The French General Population: The Room for Improvement. BMC Public Health. 2013;13(1):576.

Yakasai IA, Ayyuba R, Abubakar IS, Ibrahim SA. Sero-prevalence of hepatitis B virus infection and its risk factors among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria. J Basic Clin Reprod Sci. 2012;1(1–2):49–55.

Hugo GJ. Indonesia: Internal and International Population Mobility: Implications for The Spread of HIV/AIDS [Internet]. 2001. Available from: https://hekyll.services.adelaide. edu.au/dspace/handle/2440/40841

Zou X, Chow EPF, Zhao P, Xu Y, Ling L, Zhang L. Rural-to-Urban Migrants are at High Risk of Sexually Transmitted and Viral Hepatitis Infections in China: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14(1):490.

Hashemi-Shahri SM, Sharifi-Mood B, Metanat M, Salehi M, Sharifi R. Blood-Borne Infections in Tattooed People. Int J Infect. 2016;3(2).

Jafari S, Buxton JA, Afshar K, Copes R, Baharlou S. Tattooing and risk of hepatitis B: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Can J Public Heal. 2012;103(3):207–12.

Da Silva H, Wibawa IDN, Mulyanto, Pinatih I. The influence of the use of used syringe needles, permanent tattoos, and sharing razors toward hepatitis B virus infection in Dili City, Timor-Leste. Int Res J Eng IT Sci Res. 2017;3(2):165–70.

Naully PG, Hilmi D, Homis MM, Permata OI, Soviyani RN. An Overview of HIV, HBV, and HCV Infections among Tattooed People in Cimahi. In: 2nd International Seminar on Global Health (ISGH). 2018. p. 337–42.

Ministry of Health of The Republic of Indonesia. Peraturan Menteri Kesehatan Republik Indonesia Nomor 52 Tahun 2017 Tentang Eliminasi Penularan Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Sifilis, dan Hepatitis B dari Ibu ke Anak [The Regulation of Ministry of Health of The Republic of Indonesia No. 52 Year 2017 concerning The Elimination of HIV, Syphilis and Hepatitis B Transmission from Mother to Child]. Jakarta; 2017.


No Supplementary Material available for this article.
Article Views      : 245
PDF Downloads : 126